Title: The Interaction Of Surface- And Deep-Level National Diversity: The Case Of Global Teams
Author: Butler Christina

This conceptual paper reviews the literature on surface- and deep-level diversity in teams to develop propositions around the interaction effects of surface-level nationality and deep-level national culture in multinational teams. The authors propose that surface-level diversity will have greater and negative influence on performance outcomes relative to deep-level diversity when a multinational team comprises at least one strong strongly demarcated sub-group at the surface-level. Where fault-lines are weak, deep-level national cultural characteristics are argued to have greater influence. Drawing on Kluckhohn and Strodback’s (1961) Cultural Orientations model, convergence on the orientations of Relationship among People, Activity, and Time are deemed crucial for successful performance. Convergence around these dimensions may also be critical for teams diverse on surface-level characteristics other than nationality.

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